The early conservation movement began in the late 19th century and included fishing and wildlife management, water supply, soil conservation, and sustainable forestry. Today, the movement includes sustainable extraction of natural resources, conservation of wilderness and biodiversity.
The modern environmental movement, which began in the 1960s with concerns about air and water pollution, is now broader in scope to include all diverse natural areas and human activities.
The environmental movement that began in the progressive era (1890s – 1920s) manifests itself in urban reforms that include purifying water supplies, more efficient disposal of untreated wastewater, and unsanitary living conditions. Today, a clean environment is more about nutrition, preventive medicine, aging and other issues related to the well-being of the human body.
The sustainable development movement, which began in the 1980s, has focused on the Gaia hypothesis, the value of the earth, and other interrelationships between the human sciences and human responsibilities.
Environmental justice is a movement that began in the United States in the 1980s that seeks to end environmental racism. Often, low-income communities as well as small settlements are located near highways, landfills and factories where health risks are higher. The environmental justice movement seeks to link “social” and “environmental” issues, including issues of racism, sexism and homophobia.
While there has been an increase in public and environmental awareness in recent years, the range of issues to be addressed has expanded to include key concepts such as “sustainability” as well as emerging issues such as ozone depletion, layer, global warming, acid rain, land use and biogenetic pollution.
Environmental movements often interact with or are associated with other social movements such as peace, human rights and animal rights; and against nuclear weapons and / or nuclear energy, endemic diseases, poverty, hunger, etc.